Going back to the history
Modernist or modern architecture arose in the 20th century with the advent of new technologies (construction technology, multi-story frame, large-span metal structures, and solid glazing, passenger elevator, reinforced concrete, etc.). It significantly changed the capabilities of architecture, the course of future events and people’s lives. This was a time of abandonment of past and familiar forms and styles and a radical change in forms and designs. Many people believe, the style of modernist has become rather an expression of the internal changes of the people. Others assume the development happened because of new technological and engineering achievements. A special meaning was invested in this architecture: the artificial change in the social environment and relations. The program incorporated in the architectural design considered the social processes that were going to take place in the building. The universal choice of the side of modernist was due to its novelty and functionality.
What is the modern style of the architecture itself?
What firstly comes from the name is the creation of a new, something that would correspond to now. There is a fundamental orientation towards the novelty of architecture, both constructive and planning ideas for the project, and external forms. Modernist style differs from others by using the most modern building materials and structures. You can also notice that in the architecture of modernist there are no decorating details at all or some kind of national ornaments – all this violates the severity and cleanliness of the building. Complex shapes and designs, monumentality do not require additional decor, as they themselves are. The modernist style changed the inside and outside perception of architecture in our minds.
Сomponents of the style
Basically, modern style consists of functionalism, constructivism, rationalism, the Bauhaus movement in Germany, architectural art-deco style, international style, brutalism, organic architecture and adopted the features of each of them. All of the styles interconnect with each other. There are a lot of different elements, but we would like to focus your attention on the first three as they were the most powerful influences.
European functionalism reflects the functional part of modern architecture. The shape of the buildings was determined by its function and purpose. Usage of the large undifferentiated planes of one material, as well as, monolithic and precast reinforced concrete, glass or brick was inherent for functionalism. According to this idea, decorating elements did not bring value anymore. If we cannot use them to reinforce practicality- we don’t need them. Buildings and objects should be created as a single environment, strictly corresponding to the conditions of human life at that time. Thus, skyscrapers were built in a city with a large population, while far from the centers they were not so popular. Paying attention only to the functions, buildings did not lose their beauty due to the exclusion of some decor elements but became even more unusual and interesting. By the way, functionalism is closely connected to Bauhaus, as it is was born there. Bauhaus school brought functionalism to the world.
The Bauhaus movement in Germany
Established in Germany, the Bauhaus movement became more and more famous across Europe and other countries. It was prominent for clear and strict geometric shapes used in architecture the purpose of each of them was clearly expressed, as well as for basic colors. Usually, in the Bauhaus style, we may observe the cubic shape of buildings, but rounded corners take place as well. Internal and external shapes corresponded to the goals and functions of buildings, creating a harmony between these two environments. Simplicity, functionality and practicality, the appropriate use of space – all these characteristics from the very beginning became key for buildings in the Bauhaus style. The basic principles can be formulated as follows: minimum ornament, maximum functionality, using asymmetry, maximum use of space. Column system, free layout, free facade, the widespread use of glass, functional operation of any free space- these all were brought to the architectural world by the Bauhaus movement. Moreover, Bauhaus influenced not only the outside of architecture but also interior styles. You can find more information about this here.
The rapid growth of cities, the development of transport came into sharp conflict with the layout of old cities that did not meet the new requirements. The idea of constructivism carried a special meaning: each building and structure was erected in order to reflect any social need, problem, and function. The building plan has changed towards solving various architectural problems and satisfying old and new needs of people at that time. Сonstructivism strives to combine the functionality of the building with the artistic means of expression. And this problem was solved not with the help of decor, but by working with materials and forms. If previously art was dominant, this order was changed: art was adapted to function and not vice versa. Today constructivism extended to ECO buildings, efficiency of constructing materials. We may easily identify constructivism when there are monolithic facade and diversity of forms at the same time. Even if one building has different shapes- it looks like an organic whole.
Change of architecture
It’s impossible not to notice how much architecture has changed with the advent of modern style. We started to think about the final user of the placement, laconicism, and functionality, paying attention to the core processes and details, main purposes. People started to build with benefits and care. This style became a start point of social problem expression through architecture. Thanks to the scope of new materials and technologies the appearance of buildings changed. Nowadays more and more designers, architects and people, in general, choose and love the modern style because of all these features. All of us want to have a functional house without extra things but comfortable and beautiful. Modern architecture showed us: beauty is in simplicity, convenience is in functionality. Sometimes it is not so easy to differentiate the components of modern architecture, they are similar in many ways but became firm roots of the new architectural era. Hope this article was informative. Stay with us to read more and not to miss new articles.